To su realistični opisi koliko su danas realistični i akcijski ratni filmovi... evo kako je to junaštvo u stvarnosti izgledalo:MmeTipfeler wrote: ↑14 Jan 2019, 13:12...
Da bih Béroulov pristup bolje razjasnila, poslužit ću se usporedbom sa chansons de geste odnosno 'pjesmama o junačkim djelima' kojima je najvažnije, kao što im i ime kaže, opisivati junake u borbi – tko je koga i kako tresnuo buzdovanom po glavi ili probo mačem, kako je tko bio opremljen za boj, tko je koga potukao i kakva je junaštva počinio. Nema tu velike psihologije, opisi su vrlo konkretni: ovaj je učinio ovo, a onaj ono, ovaj je izgledao ovako, a onaj onako, ovo su riječi jednoga, a ono drugoga.
Nasty, brutish and not that short
The soldier now known as "Towton 25" had survived battle before. A healed skull fracture points to previous engagements. He was old enough—somewhere between 36 and 45 when he died—to have gained plenty of experience of fighting. But on March 29th 1461, his luck ran out.
"Towton 25" suffered eight wounds to his head that day. The precise order can be worked out from the direction of fractures on his skull: when bone breaks, the cracks veer towards existing areas of weakness. The first five blows were delivered by a bladed weapon to the left-hand side of his head, presumably by a right-handed opponent standing in front of him. None is likely to have been lethal.
The next one almost certainly was. From behind him someone swung a blade towards his skull, carving a down-to-up trajectory through the air. The blow opened a huge horizontal gash into the back of his head—picture a slit you could post an envelope through. Fractures raced down to the base of his skull and around the sides of his head. Fragments of bone were forced in to Towton 25's brain, felling him.
His enemies were not done yet. Another small blow to the right and back of the head may have been enough to turn him over onto his back. Finally another blade arced towards him. This one bisected his face, opening a crevice that ran from his left eye to his right jaw (see picture). It cut deep: the edge of the blade reached to the back of his throat.
https://www.economist.com/christmas-spe ... that-short
- i to je još kamilica prema arheološkim forenzičkim nalazima bitke iz 1361. na baltičkom otoku Gotlandu, gdje su takovi opjevani vitezovi-junaci skupa sa germanskim plaćenicima izmasakrirali slabo opremljene pobunjene pučane-seljake:
In 1905 a mass grave was found on the Island of Gotland and in the years up to 1928 at least three more pits were found. The final ones were found outside the gates of Visby, a walled city. It is said that the merchants and citizens of Visby were not used to fighting and refused to help. They eventually capitulated after the peasants had been slaughtered and bought the Danes off. The irony of it was that the ship which was taking the booty back home sank so that trip was for no gain of treasure.
The dead of the peasant defenders were stripped of virtually anything of value and any arms or armour and then flung into pits where they had been despatched. Over 1185 human remains were found in pits excavated and many more are known about - some inaccessible.
Just a few were found still wearing minor bits of equipment such as this skull [pict.] (one of two) with the mail coif still in position but many would have been very poorly equipped or armed. This is proved by the results of archaeological investigations which enabled a fairly detailed picture of injuries to be built up. The injuries inflicted on the poorly equipped defenders proved explicit and horrific and were categorised into three main types with subdivisions where required.
There were 456 wounds with visible evidence of cutting weapons, such as swords and axes. There were 126 which were from piercing weapons such as arrows, lances and "morning stars" which were a wooden ball studded with metal spikes and attached to a short handle with a chain and these were used against head and shoulders from above. There were also an undisclosed number of crushing injuries by the mace and war hammer. The latter were also often used to finish off the wounded.
The cutting wounds were split into two groups, those which showed hacking evidence but finished at the bone and those which actually severed the bone were 29. For example in more than one case where a single well aimed blow with a sword had been aimed at the upper legs and gone straight through both severing them instantly. Some had evidence of more than one lesser blow before the killer blow was used either in or after the battle.
War hammers were also in evidence where a square section of the hammer head showing in the shape of the section of the skull which had been stove in. See the picture on the left which points to three bodkin arrow points which had penetrated the skull and two holes where a hammer had been used and the skull split between them.
Which came first is unknown. A number of guesses can be made such as two quick hammer blows to fell the man and the arrows landing after, or a hail of arrows which he had turned his back on and then later two hammer blows to put him out of his misery. Before stripping and dumping him with his mates. The grouping of the arrow heads is particularly spectacular and it makes one wonder if they used the tactic of a hail of arrows as in the later battle of Crecy where it is said the English Longbow men kept 100,000 arrows in the air at one time.
https://web.archive.org/web/20070429200 ... /visby.htm